Re: The stealing of land…

 From Facebook:


It’s nice that Patagonia is trying to hit this issue, but the Indigenous communities affected by this move most MUST be heard. Not one tribal government who has significant stakes in this have been talked to or included in this effort. 5 tribal governments have had their tribal sovereignty cast aside making this the second major move Trump has made against Indigenous people in this move that is less unprecedented and more falling in line with the American tradition of disregarding this land’s first people. The space proposed for industrialization is filled with over 100,000 sacred sites, ceremonial grounds, and burials of old ones. This is Indian Land. This is the land our Creator has covenanted to us. We are the stewards of this land, and we will fight to protect it always. (design concept by Alexis Munoa Dyer and Katie Wilderness Brown! THANK YOU!) #savebearsland grab.jpgears #protectthesacred

Today, December 8, 2017

Ana Tijou

I am very upset at the course of the U.S. Here is a list so far (let me know if I forgot something) foreign and domestic mismanagement, foolishness, bullying behavior, meddling, wreaking havoc, negligence, lying, cheating, unlawful behavior, disrespect. I have never in my 61 years experienced such a mess. The people in charge need to be immediately fired.
Foreign –
North Korea,
Domestic –
Puerto Rico,
Alaska Wilderness open to mining,
National Park reduction,
treaty violations and abuse of indigenous populations,
Flint, Michigan water,
oil and gas pipeline proliferation,
fracking and the use of eminent domain,
climate change denial,
elimination of the EPA,
militarization of police, police brutality, a broken criminal justice system
gun violence,
a WTF wall,
reduction of medical care and insurance,
high cost of higher education,
privatization of public school,
increase in taxes,
shrinking of the middle class,
reduction of civil rights,
invasion of privacy,
curtailing free press,
attack on unions,
attack on women’s reproductive rights,
ending net neutrality,
increase in domestic surveillance,
The War on Terror,
The War on Drugs,
It is a war on the common people right now in a prelude to an actual devastating real war and I am wondering how long this list has to get before everyone wakes up that it is not business as usual and something must be done.

The Sand Creek Massacre

The Sand Creek Massacre
Southern Cheyenne
November 29, 1864

Sand Creek

   Colorado Territory during the 1850’s and 1860’s was a place of phenomenal growth in Colorado homes spurred by gold and silver rushes. Miners by the tens of thousands had elbowed their way into mineral fields, dislocating and angering the Cheyennes and Arapahos. The Pike’s Peak Gold Rush in 1858 brought the the tension to a boiling point. Tribesmen attacked wagon trains, mining camps, and stagecoach lines during the Civil War, when the military garrisons out west were reduced by the war. One white family died within 20 miles of Denver. This outbreak of violence is sometimes referred to as the Cheyenne-Arapaho War or the Colorado War of 1864-65. 
   Governor John Evans of Colorado Territory sought to open up the Cheyenne and Arapaho hunting grounds to white development. The tribes, however, refused to sell their lands and settle on reservations. Evens decided to call out volunteer militiamen under Colonel John Chivington to quell the mounting violence. 
   Evans used isolated incidents of violence as a pretext to order troops into the field under the ambitious, Indian-hating  territory military commander Colonel  Chivington. Though John Chivington had once belonged to the clergy, his compassion for his fellow man didn’t extend to the Indians. 
Sand Creek Massacre

   In the spring of 1864, while the Civil War raged in the east, Chivington launched a campaign of violence against the Cheyenne and their allies, his troops attacking any and all Indians and razing their villages. The Cheyennes, joined by neighboring Arapahos, Sioux, Comanches, and Kiowas in both Colorado and Kansas, went on the defensive warpath.
   Evans and Chivington reinforced their militia, raising the Third Colorado Calvary of short-term volunteers who referred to themselves as “Hundred Dazers”. After a summer of scattered small raids and clashes, white and Indian representatives met at Camp Weld outside of Denver on September 28. No treaties were signed, but the Indians believed that by reporting and camping near army posts, they would be declaring peace and accepting sanctuary. 
   Black Kettle was a peace-seeking chief of a band of some 600 Southern Cheyennes  and Arapahos that followed the buffalo along the Arkansas River of Colorado and Kansas. They reported to Fort Lyon and then camped on Sand Creek about 40 miles north.
   Shortly afterward, Chivington led a force of about 700 men into Fort Lyon, and gave the garrison notice of his plans for an attack on the Indian encampment. Although he was informed that Black Kettle has already surrendered, Chivington pressed on with what he considered the perfect opportunity to further the cause for Indian extinction. On the morning of November 29, he led his troops, many of them drinking heavily, to Sand Creek and positioned them, along with their four howitzers, around the Indian village. 
   Black Kettle ever trusting raised both an American and a white flag of peace over his tepee. In response, Chivington raised his arm for the attack. Chivington wanted a victory, not prisoners, and so men, women and children were hunted down and shot. 
   With cannons and rifles pounding them, the Indians scattered in panic. Then the crazed soldiers charged and killed anything that moved. A few warriors managed to fight back to allow some of the tribe to escape across the stream, including Black Kettle. 
   The colonel was as thorough as he was heartless. An interpreter living in the village testified, “THEY WERE SCALPED, THEIR BRAINS KNOCKED OUT; THE MEN USED THEIR KNIVES, RIPPED OPEN WOMEN, CLUBBED LITTLE CHILDREN, KNOCKED THEM IN THE HEAD WITH THEIR RIFLE BUTTS, BEAT THEIR BRAINS OUT, MUTILATED THEIR BODIES IN EVERY SENSE OF THE WORD.” By the end of the one-sided battle as many as 200 Indians, more than half women and children, had been killed and mutilated. 
   While the Sand Creek Massacre outraged easterners, it seemed to please many people in Colorado Territory. Chivington later appeared on a Denver stage where he regaled delighted audiences with his war stories and displayed 100 Indian scalps, including the pubic hairs of women.
   Chivington was later denounced in a congressional investigation and forced to resign. When asked at the military inquiry why children had been killed, one of the soldiers quoted Chivington as saying, “NITS MAKE LICE.”  Yet the after-the-fact reprimand of the colonel meant nothing to the Indians.
   As word of the massacre spread among them via refugees, Indians of the southern and northern plains stiffened in their resolve to resist white encroachment. An avenging wildfire swept the land and peace returned only after a quarter of a century.













The Bear River Massacre

The Bear River Massacre
January 29, 1863


   Washington Territory The peaceful Shoshone camp was attacked at dawn by Colonel Patrick Edward O’Connor and his militia from Salt Lake City, UT. The Bear River camp was in Washington Territory. Not even a part of the territory O’Connor was sent to watch and protect pony express riders and telegraph lines. O’Connor also brought howitzers, but the snows were to deep. It was this bit of luck that allowed a few Shoshone to escape. Only a very few did escape. 55,000 bullets were used to kill a sleepy camp of about 300. A two year old survivor, son of Chief Sagwitch had seven bullets pass through and into his little body. The Shoshone tried desperately to live in peace with the white settlers. They never posed a great threat like the Comanche and Apache. It seems the more peaceful the tribe, the more bloody the massacre. Bullies always pick on the peaceful. Chief Washakie led his people to the Wind River. It was a place to keep his people safe from the encroaching settlers. These mountains were not suitable for farming. He was a great chief, but only the warrior chiefs of the Lakota, Apache, and Comanche are remembered. This massacre also took place during the Civil War. The massacre was conducted not by trained military, but violent and most times drunken militia. Like Sand Creek, the militia broke the arms and legs of women so they couldn’t fight back while they were raped. Bayonets cut open the wombs of pregnant women and pulled out the fetus. Some of the militia wrapped the fetus around their hats as war trophies. After the women were raped the militia men split their skulls open with hatchets. Babies and Toddlers were grabbed and their heads bashed against trees. Chief Bear Hunter was beaten, kicked, stripped and whipped bloody. When he did not cry out in pain or anguish to his tormenters, a soldier heated his bayonet and ran it through Bear Hunter’s ears. O’Connor then let his men pillage anything that was left to take. Anything the militia could not steal and plunder was put to the torch including the last of food staples for any survivors. The handful of survivors lived because some of the Mormons did feel guilt. They sheltered them and fed them until the Shoshone could make their way to other camps, including Washakie’s haven in the Wind River.


This account comes from a Shoshone novelist and historian – Payton Lee


The Cherokee Massacre at Ywahoo Falls

In researching my family on my mother’s side I became very interested in the people of Paint Rock, Tennessee. My great grandmother was half Cherokee is was said. In this research I came across the story of the Trail of Tears of which I had heard about in school. But there are other stories, stories of absolute horror. There is a saying in this story about “killing the nit” and I had read about it in some other reference material that discussed how to get rid of lice. So, that is why in a great many of these massacres they went out of their way to kill pregnant women, children, and babies. because you had to “kill the nit to kill the lice”. And you wonder why there is so much hate in the United States today? Do not blame everything on Trump, read your history. The hatred for others, for brown people in particular is endemic.

Chickamauga Timeline

“The Great Cherokee Children Massacre at Ywahoo Falls”

On Friday, August 10th 1810, the Great Cherokee Children Massacre took place at Ywahoo Falls in southeast Kentucky ….. the Cherokee village leaders of the Cumberland Plateau territory from Knoxville Tennessee to Cumberland River in Kentucky were led by the northern provisional Thunderbolts District Chief, Beloved Woman/ War Woman “Corn blossom” the highly honored daughter of the famous Thunderbolt War Chief Doublehead. Several months before this date, Beloved Woman/ War Woman Cornblossom, was preparing the people in all the Cherokee villages of southeast Kentucky and northern Tennessee to bring all their children to the sacred Ywahoo Falls area of refuge and safety.

Once all the Cherokee children were gathered, they were to make a journey to Reverend Gideon Blackburn’s’ Presbyterian Indian School at Sequatchie Valley outside of Chattanooga Tennessee in order to save the children of the Cherokee Nation remaining in Kentucky and northern Tennessee on the Cumberland Plateau.

This area of Sequatchie Valley was very near to Lookout Mountain at Chattanooga, the once long held Chickamauga National capital of the Thunderbolts. Near Lookout Mountain, just on the other side in northeast Alabama, was the rendezvous point for the Chickamauga Cherokee and their allies the Creek Nation. For by this time, many Creek and Chickamauga Thunderbolts Cherokee were defending the rest of the Indian Nations there as well. The arrangements to save the Cherokee children through Gideon Blackburns’ white protection Christian Indian Schools, had been made earlier by Cornblossoms father War Chief Doublehead, who had also several years earlier been assassinated by non­-traditionalist of the southern Cherokee Nation of the Carolina’s and far eastern Tennessee.

A huge gathering area underneath Ywahoo Falls itself was to be the central meeting place for these women and children to gather and wait. Then all the children of all ages would go as one group southward to the school to safety from the many Indian fighters gathering in the neighboring counties of Wayne and Pulaski in Kentucky. These Indian fighters were led by an old Franklinite militiaman from Tennessee named Hiram “Big Tooth” Gregory who came from Sullivan County Tennessee at the settlement of Franklin and had fought many Franklinite campaigns under John Sevier to eliminate all the traditional Thunderbolt Cherokees totally and without mercy. Big Tooth Gregory, sanctioned by the United States government, War Department, and Governor of the territory, carried on the ill famous Indian hating battle cry of John Seveir that “nits make lice”. Orders were understood by these Cherokee haters that nits (baby lice) would grow up to be adults and especially targeted in all the campaigns of John Seveir, Franklinites were the Cherokees women, pregnant women, and children of all ages. John Seveir, Big Tooth Gregory, and all the rest of the white churches, and the claiming of territory for the United States. Orders were issued to the Franklinites to split open the belly of any pregnant Cherokee women, remove the baby inside her, and slice it as well. To the Franklinites, the Cherokee baby inside the mother was the nit that would eventually make lice.

In all the earlier campaigns of the Franklinites in the late 1700s, the blood and screams of the Cherokee children were constantly heard throughout the Cumberland Plateau territory from today’s Knoxville Tennessee to the Cumberland River in southeast Kentucky to all their adjoining territories. From as far in Kentucky as present day London/Corbin and the lands within the present Daniel Boone National Forest the cries could be heard. The Lands from London to Cumberland Falls were ruled by many war leaders, among them was a Great warrior and friend to Cornblossom, War chief Red Bird called Chief Cutsuwah, descendent of the Great War Women Cutsuwah that fell during the French and Indian War at Burnside Kentucky. Red Bird
was also a close relative to Corn blossom, War Chief Peter Troxell and their descendants. The cries of Red Birds women and children echoed many times in this genocide campaign of the Franklinites to rid the area of powerful Cherokee leaders. The blood of many warrior, men and women, was spilled trying to defend their Cherokee people. From where todays Pickett State Park lays in northern Tennessee just below the Kentucky Tennessee State Line lying south of present day Wayne County Kentucky, the cries of women and children and fallen warriors of War Chief The Fox could also be heard. The Fox was sometimes called Black Fox or Captain Fox. He became known as Captain Fox when Doublehead and his loyal Thunderbolt war parties in the late 1700s attacked a militia in Kentucky, killing their leader which was a Captain in the American Army. As The Fox was the one who killed the Captain, he took his militia overcoat in victory and wore it constantly. A frenzied whoop dance was performed on Lookout Mountain by Dragging Canoe. Doublehead, and all the Bloody 7 over this victory attack on the Kentucky militia. The Fox then became known to all the Cherokee as Captain Fox. Now the villages under Chief Captain Fox
came under attack by the Franklinites.

Standing fern from the Ywahoo Falls area sent many warriors and war women to counter the Franklinites move on their boundaries many times as did Corn blossom and War Chief Peter Troxell. War Chief Peter Troxell had attacked to the west of Ywahoo Falls in 1806 and 1807 the settlers of Wayne and Pulaski counties, bringing many settlers to the point of utter fear for their encroachments against the Cherokees of the now Daniel Boone National Forrest of southeast Kentucky. But in 1807 the War Chief Peter Troxell had been granted official amnesty by the Governor of Kentucky if he and his Cherokee war parties from neighboring McCreary County stop their raids into Wayne and Pulaski County. War Chief Peter Troxell agreed and turned over his scalping knife with 9 notches to the authorities at the courthouse in Wayne County. Peace would last just a short time when the settlers of Wayne and Pulaski banded together in 1810 to break this peace treaty at the massacre of Ywahoo Falls. Many of the Cherokee vyho tried to protect their people during these times simply did not return, dwindling the people down to small factions, and the Indian fighters knew it. But these small factions of Indian traditionalist in southeast Kentucky became more determined to save their people as ever. And from this, encroachments of white settlers, and land speculators, the many Southern Cherokee who allied themselves with the United States government trying to defeat the traditionalist of Kentucky Georgia and Tennessee. All, resulting in the Chickamaugan Cherokee separating even more from the southern Cherokee of the Carolinas to fight this continuing drastic change.

Politically, Two {2) Cherokee Nations had been formed during Dragging Canoe and Doubleheads’ fight for freedom of the traditionalist: The Southern Cherokees of the Carolinas and far eastern Tennessee and the Chickamaugan Cherokee of Georgia, eastern Alabama, Tennessee, and Kentucky. For you see, over the many years, many of the southern Cherokee of the Carolinas who lived more close to the white settlements leaned toward the US Governments policy of change many became inbred within the white society and did as the whites did collecting black and Indian slaves for themselves and to sell, with some becoming rich, many did away with the “Old Ways” and played into the hands of politicians and land speculators to steal land as they themselves would now own land unto themselves. Many of the Southern Cherokee would also condemn the Thunderbolt traditional Cherokees in Georgia, Tennessee, and Kentucky who would not change and accept the new ways of the Europeans, shamed and banished any Carolina Cherokees who would not accept the new ways of the Europeans the white man’s ways. Many Cherokees in the Carolinas and elsewhere isolated themselves in the mountains way before the trail of tears during the social civil strife between the people. These conformed Cherokees would brand any and all who kept their ancient Cherokee heritage as traitors to the Cherokee people. And from all of this strife of change many traditional Cherokee protectors arose. Dragging Canoe and Double head arose to defend the people. But by this date of 1810 Dragging Canoe and the rest of the so-called Bloody Seven had either died a natural death or been killed and War Chief Doublehead, Corm blossoms father, had met his death by means of assassination at the hands of the Cherokee conformist from the south.

And now, in 1810, one more attempt would be made to destroy the Cherokees who kept the old traditional ways. One more attempt would be made to destroy the “nits that make lice” as the many Cherokee women with their children began coming to Ywahoo Falls in order to make the great “Children” migration to Sequatchie Valley near Chattanooga, Tennessee. In southeast Kentucky, underneath Ywahoo Falls itself, was War Women Standing Fern and over 100 women and children, others stationed themselves out from the falls. Standing Fern was the mighty war women leader of the Ywahoo Falls area and was married to the 1st born of Corn blossom. She was married to War Chief Peter Troxell. At the time Corm blossom was married to the famous “Big Jake” Jacob Troxell, a half breed Delaware Warrior from Pennsylvania who had been sent by the personal staff of President George Washington earlier to sway the Cherokee away from the Spanish of Florida and more towards the New American alliance. But Jacob had ended up joining the Cherokee instead which came about over the inhumane cruelty the incoming settlers of Kentucky and Tennessee were inflicting on the Cherokee and other tribes of southeast Kentucky and northern Tennessee. To the New Americans he had “turned injun” (again). By 1810. ” Little Jake” Peter Troxell was a mighty War Chief riding alongside his mother Cornblossom in all her campaigns and protecting the sacred sites with his wife Standing Fern. They were true Cherokee Thunderbolts and wore the sacred emblem and mark of the Thunder people: the Lightning Bolt, Standing Fern was in charge of the gathered children who by August 10th had almost all would be ready and they would go southward in a children fleeing journey more closer to the Thunderbolts of the south who were more stronger.

Runners brought word to Standing Fern at the falls that her husband War Chief Peter Troxell and Corn blossom were on their way to Ywahoo Falls with the last of the children. Traveling with Corm blossom and War Chief Peter Troxell were Chief Red Bird of the Cumberland Falls area and their children, the youngest children of Cornblossom, and all the children of War Chief Peter Troxell. When they arrive at Ywahoo Falls the journey southward would begin. But before Corn blossom, Red Bird, War Chief Peter Troxell, and tfie children with them arrived, the old Franklinites” Indian fighter” by the name of Hiram “Big Tooth” Gregory had heard of the planned trip several days prior and headed immediately for the falls area to kill them all with all he could muster to kill the Cherokee.

Breaking the 1807 peace treaty between War Chief Peter Troxell and the Governor of Kentucky, Big Tooth Gregory’s band of Indian fighters crossed into Cherokee territory and came in two directions, one group from Wayne County, the other from neighboring Pulaski County in southeast Kentucky. The Indian fighters on horseback joined together at what is now called Flat Rock Kentucky and headed into the Ywahoo Falls area with fiery hatred. Big Tooth Gregory and his Indian fighters could not allow these children (nits) to escape. Being only 1 good accessible way in by land and 1 way in by water, Gregory’s band of Indian fighters chose the quick way by land, and sending a few skirmishers by way to block anyone trying to escape., Before they reached the falls, at today’s entrance to Ywahoo Falls, the Indian fighters encountered a front Cherokee guard consisting of “Big Jake” Troxell (husband to Cornblossom), a few long hunters friendly to the Cherokee mainly through intermarriage and some remaining Thunderbolt warriors, all who were guarding the entrance to the falls. This occurred shortly after midnight in the early morning hours of darkness before the rising of the sun. This will be the night morning of screams. This will be the last of the children. This will be the day that will forever mark Troxell Cherokee heritage in history.

Jacob Troxell, the long hunters, and warriors instantly sense the trouble, a Cherokee runner takes off in flight to attempt to warn Standing Fern at the Falls but is cut down by 2 side skirmishers on the way. At the same time Jacob Troxell and the front guards lock in a fierce battle of flintlock against flintlock and hand to hand fighting, trying to keep Gregory and his band out, but over come in a short time by the number of Indian fighters. All the front guard is killed at this entrance to Ywahoo Falls. It was said through the memories of the Cherokee people of southeast Kentucky that Jacob Troxell and 1 renowned great warrior were the last to fall of the front guards. Jacob, now swinging a half broken highly decorated war club in one hand and a large skinning knife in the other, stood fighting hand to hand with blood coming out of his mouth from several bodily wounds and was said to have kept screaming to the end in loud voice over and over “The Children!”. The great warrior witness the fall of Jacob as the Indian fighters took sharp aim and fired a whole valley of lead into Jacobs’s body finally downing and scalping him. Jacob will survive this attack but is mortally wounded and will live 2 months before he dies as a result from this massacre. So some say that Jacob died at this massacre to denote his final breath to save the children because that was where his heart was-defending the children of a now forgotten people lost within the hills and valleys of southeast Kentucky waiting for remembrance of their families. The Great Warrior, who was still standing and the last to fall, was jumped by several Indian fighters and downed to the ground. Breaking his arms the Indian fighters then cut his throat and scalped him.

This had all been witnessed and watched by a hidden son of one of the front Cherokee guards who was given orders to flee into the woods upon the Indian fighters approach. This hidden Cherokee son would carry this memory for generations (today at this entrance to Ywahoo Falls this is only one lonely memorial grave marker with the name “Jacob Troxell” only, to mark remembrance of this incident, the Ywahoo falls area is part of Big South Fork River and Recreation Area of the National Park Service and is the tallest waterfall in Kentucky which drops 113 feet, underneath and behind the falls is an open huge gigantic rock shelter where the children and Standing Fern had gathered).

Gregory with his Indian fighters after scalping all the front guards, then moved in a rush to the falls area. Lining themselves all along the top rim of the bluff surrounding the falls and large “rock house” below it, they began firing from all sides down on War Women Standing Fern and over 100 children now trapped directly underneath them. The ones out from the falls ran, and escaped. Trapping the 100 children with the old men, pregnant women, and mothers beneath the falls, Gregory and his men worked their way down into the gigantic area of the rock house on the 2 downward side paths while the ones on top kept them bottled in. As children and women fell all around her from the volley of lead above, War Women Standing Fern and her few warriors now take to the two left and right inclining side paths that lead into the huge rock shelter hoping to meet and stop the Indian fighters. Looking outward from underneath the falls itself, Standing Fern and several warriors took the right hand path that would lead upward, the other few warriors took the left path. The trapped Cherokee people and the children old enough to hold a weapon grabbed whatever they could in their grasp to defend themselves. Some would have a knife or hatchet, while most would only have a rock or a clay cooking bowl to throw ornothing at all to use as a weapon. Some of the ones who escaped out from the falls, hid among the rocks, water, and trees and would watch in horror with tears to tell the story for generations so that we may remember what happen that day, Friday, August 10th, 1810.

Standing Fern and her warriors were very quickly overcome by the Indian fighters and brutally killed but not before Standing Fern fought with passion of defense taking with her several Indian fighters in hand to hand combat along the right path while the other warriors fought with the ever fevered courage of a Thunderbolt as well. The fall of Standing Fern occurred at a narrow spot on the right path fighting several of the Indian fighters with the swinging of a hatcher in hand to hand combat. As she was fighting she was shot twice, once in the shoulder and once in the hip, and gutted in the belly with an unforeseen knife. As the knife entered her belly, at the time she was shoved over the ravine by several Indian fighters, but not before taking some with her.

With Standing Fern and all her warriors now defeated and murdered, the Indian fighters set upon the children and others that were trapped under the falls, rushing it with more volleys of lead c;1nd close attack. Using what useless weapons they had, the women, old men, and children fell prey to the evil dark design of the attackers. They screamed and earthquake of death and tears. The water and ground ran red.

Hiram Big Tooth Gregory and all his Indian fighters raped the women and younger female children of all ages, pillaged, cut bellies open, murdered, and scalped over 100 Chickamaugan Cherokee women and children that had been trapped undernea,tt{ Ywahoo Falls, killing most of them as they ran, begged, huddled together, and screamed and pleaded for life.

Meanwhile this same day the party of Corm blossom approached with her children. As her party came closer to the falls area, it is said a hawk flew above them and lit in a nearby tree and acted strange. Investigating the remarkable occurrence, it was found that the tree was bleeding blood out of its bark, the leaves trembled, and the sound of the hawk was a cry and scream of a baby. Fearing something wrong, Cornblossom and her party pushed onward in a frantic pace to get her children to the falls and safety. When Cornblossom arrived at the falls entrance area, she found all of the front guards brutally scalped and killed with her husband “Big Jake” Jacob Troxell. Leaving the children with some women at the front guard entrance, Corn blossom, her son, War Chief Peter Troxell, Red Bird, and their party of warriors and war women then rushed to the Falls itself, where they find some of Gregory’s murderers who had remained behind still finishing the evil work of rape, torture, and scalping. Cornblossom screams for her warriors, Redbird, and her son Chief Peter Troxell to kill these remaining men with a blow of passion. Her famous cry was once again heard as she had always shouted in all her many campaigns: “Shoot Twice Not Once!” War Chief Peter Troxell, Chief Redbird, and the Thunderbolt Warriors, along with the Beloved Women/ War Women Cornblossom, charge the murderers with screaming Cherokee war hoops and passion of justice, a battle ensues with a short volley of rifle fire and close hand to hand combat with all its fierceness. All the remaining men of Gregory’s Indian fighters are cut down to never harm the Cherokee people.

From this last fight Corn blossom, her son War Chief Peter Troxell was himself killed at the huge rock shelter underneath the falls and Cornblossom herself received an agonizing rifle gunshot injury. Corn blossom will live 2 days before the wound takes its full toll on her life. Beloved Women Cornblossom, wounded and in much pain from wound and sorrow, will sing and wail the “Death song of the Cherokees” underneath and atop the ancient sacred grounds of Ywahoo Falls over and over for 2 days and nights. Clinching her raised fists and raised open arms to the Great Spirit, day and night, she kept screaming the words of her father Doublehead, son War Chief Peter Troxell, and daughter- in- law War Women Standing Fern: “WE ARE NOT CONQUERED YET!” And on the 3rd day, as the blazing eastern morning sun would rise over the mountains and valleys of Kentucky, Corm blossom passed on into Cherokee history as a great woman of her people and a great grandmother of future generations. May we not forget her or her children’s children. Remembering her with a Cherokee tear and with honor.

From this massacre, Jacob Troxell (husband to Cornblossom), the Great Warrior, and all the front guards killed, War Women Standing Fern (wife to War Chief Peter Troxell) and her elite Thunderbolt warriors all killed defending the children below the falls, War Chief Peter Troxell killed in the last fight, and over 100 women and children waiting to go south to safety in a children journey to a Christian mission school, all lay dead, massacred, raped, tortured, and scalped, by these “Indian fighters”. It was said that “Bones and Blood ran so deep underneath Ywahoo falls that the murdered dead were all put there together in a heap to be their grave”. The place of innocence and the Ancient Ones now became a place of death of the innocent. The Falls ran red that day of darkness, Friday, August 10, 1810. No more will they witness the Blessed Moon bow at Cumberland Falls and receives sacred Blessings, no more will they hear great orations spoken a Ywahoo Falls by not only the many Cherokee leaders of the Nation but-0ther great orators from other tribal neighbors as well. No more will they roam and see the land of paradise and the geological wonders of the area. William Troxell the youngest son on Cornblossom will forever keep the fires of memory alive so all may know what happened on Friday August 10. 1810. These fires will be carried by William to Alabama were the stories are etched and burned into the generations to come of the Troxells and whoever may listen and remember.

They will now wait for remembrance of themselves, their land, their culture, and their hearts. They will wait for someone to say “I remember”.

A relative Troxell and a Blevins man of the area reports this incident to the Sheriff of Wayne County but nothing is done, nor is Hiram Big Tooth Gregory brought to justice for many of the local non-Indian believed the “nits make lice”.

Beloved/Woman Corn blossom wails and suffers so much over the dead that she dies from grief a couple of days after the massacre of her husband, her son, her daughter-in-law, and over 100 loved women and children of her Cherokee people. Her grief was sorrowful and hard. It is said that on her last breath to leave her body wads the soft words “WE ARE NOT CONQUERED YET … REMEMBER MY CHILDREN … REMEMBER MY PEOPLE”.

This massacre ended all power of the mighty Chickamaugan Thunderbolt Cherokee people in Kentucky to Knoxville Tennessee. Corn blossom and Standing Fern were the last powerful “Beloved Women/ War Women of the Thunderbolt Cherokees of the Cumberland Plateau. War Chief Peter Troxell, son of Corn blossom, was the last of the great powerful Cherokee “War Chiefs” of Kentucky and the Cumberland Plateau. These people of southeast Kentucky and northern Tennessee held out unto death. And as it is often said “Today was a good day to die “for “We are not conquered yet”. The rest of the children of Corm blossom, the children of Standing Fern, War Chief’s Redbird and Peter Troxell were spared from this tragedy, to live on, generation after generation, some keeping the memory and history alive of the Cherokee Nation. With no powerful Cherokee leaders left Kentucky and the Cumberland Plateau to hold any strong power, many Cherokee leave the South Fork area of southeast Kentucky and northern Tennessee after this great massacre in feat of the whites, while others become isolated and hide in the mountains. The children’s children of War Chief Peter Troxell, Standing Fern, and Corn blossom will isolate themselves in the valleys and mountains of southeast Kentucky with some holding on to the memory of their Great Cherokee heritage, to not speak openly or too much until the time has come for remembrance. I, Dan Troxell, comes out from isolation and proclaims our history alive for I am a Real Human Being. I am a Thunderbolt, I am a Cherokee. The Thunderbolt people will now wait for remembrance.

After the ·massacre at Ywahoo Falls, reverend Blackburn’s “Indian Schools” in Tennessee are discontinued due to Blackburn’s illness and grief over the many women and children killed at Ywahoo Falls in southeast Kentucky. Reverend Blackburn is caught with a boatload of whiskey and becomes and alcoholic. Chief Redbird isolates his people that live near Cumberland Falls and send any remaining people into hiding until remembrance. The children of Corn blossom and Standing Fern survived. William Troxell the youngest son of Corm blossom, and my decent, survived and removed himself to northeastern Alabama 7 years after the massacre, lived with the Creeks, and became a link between the hidden Cherokee in Kentucky and Tennessee before and after the Trail of Tears.

But there is more to be told after the massacre, events that will shape history into meaning of not only Double head legacy but for all who were to survive the invasion of settlers. Survival of the children and their generations to come. And this will center on the descendants in southeastern Kentucky and William Troxell and his father Jacob Troxell and the legacy that will now transpire in Alabama. In order to protect the children and their generations many things were done to preserve, hidden things, things on one hand presented to the settlers to be true while in reality other things came about, and this tactic of survival was given to them earlier by Doublehead.

As there were Cherokee survivors to this massacre many did die a brutal death from it. Doubleheads descent of his children and their children were considered by the settlers to be not only a threat but a future threat as well. Also in the last fight of Corn blossom, Peter Troxell, and Redbird when they attacked the remaining murderers at the Falls, 3 of the white men were held and spared briefly and executed personally by the hidden children who had escaped and run into the nearby hill. This execution of justice came shortly after the passing of Corm blossom on the 3rd day after being weighted in judgement by the Cherokee Council of Women of Redbird. The first blow was said to be struck by the son of the Great Warrior who fell among the front guards. His name was Tommy Bright Star, who will also remove himself to Alabama later with William Troxell. One of the 3 white men executed by the children was close blood kin to the Indian fighter leader Hiram “Big Tooth” Gregory, his name was Homer Gregory, believed to be the brother of Hiram.

To many Indian hating settlers along with the Kentucky and Tennessee militia deemed the massacre the last of the resistance movement of Kentucky Cherokees and northern Tennessee. The aftermath of this Cherokee massacre brought new questionable ideals to the now so-called victorious gloated settlers. Questions like: Is the Cherokee resistance truly over or will somewhere retaliation occur? Are they truly conquered and defeated? And what of the children, will they assimilate into non-Indian society, or must they be dealt with harshly, or what? Many questions, much pondering on what next. The settler, now feeling powerful and self-dominated, ponder on the next steps to take in the Cherokee matters.

Foreseeing more tragic events in southeast Kentucky and northern Tennessee, and understanding that the Indian fighters are now receiving bits and pieces of rumors that some of the Cherokee leaders are NOT dead and possibly survived, and that Homer Gregory and two others were executed, the Cherokees must keep one step ahead of the settlers by making widely known that the massacre event that killed all their leaders, especially the ones of the Doublehead/Cornblossom connection and descent who had any Cherokee power as their known leaders. True:
Corn blossom, Peter Troxell, Standing Fern, the Great Warrior, many front guards, over 100 Cherokee women and children were slaughtered in the massacre. All who had strong connections with Doublehead legacy. However, what is kept from the settlers is that Jacob Troxell and some others did not die from their wounds. The others were the ones that had escaped when the massacre began. But Jacob will suffer much pain from his wounds. William Troxell (Dan Troxell direct descent), 7 years after the massacre in the year 1817, will concealing take Jacob and some other Cherokee with him to northeast Alabama. War Chief Peter Troxell became known as the last father of the people, father of his brother and sisters in honor, and that is why some will say that Peter is of their descent, so no one will forget him as well.

But first ALL things must be concealed from the non-Indians. Jacobs 3 trading post burned by the Cherokee with any goods distributed to the PEOPLE. Caves are deliberately sand walled and collapsed in southeast Kentucky and northern Tennessee. Some Cherokee traveled into the non-Indian Kentucky territories of Wayne, Pulaski, and Green to conceal THINGS of importance, while others THINGS are secretly transported to northeast Alabama through the guise of Cherokee War Women acting like non-Indian Women. Villages, burial grounds, and other important things of past leaders are shuffled to conceal. On and On. To the settlers, Jacob Troxell could not be allowed to live, he was politically a threat, as he was married to the daughter of Doublehead which could stir up the Cherokee again to resistance. If any of the leaders were to have survived, bloodshed after bloodshed could have maybe occurred. With all Cherokee power gone, the killing of innocent Cherokee must end. This hope to save the people must now obscure itself into time and history.

To give the false story to the settlers that Jacob had died with the rest, brought satisfaction to the settlers that the Cherokee resistance had completely ended. And this self-assurance of conquering ALL the Cherokee leaders gave the Kentucky Cherokees the time they needed. This time allowed Jacob and his son William Troxell to safely travel to Alabama, set up a communications link, and survive.

The other children of Corn blossom in southeast Kentucky will inter-marry into early settlers and survive. The son of Hiram ” Big Tooth” Grego·ry from Wayne County, whose name is also Hiram Gregory, a raving fire and brimstone mountain preacher, takes in marriage a woman by the name Jane Stevenson, Jane Stevenson, a white woman, had also been married to War Chief Peter Troxell during the early 1800s. And this is also another reason that sparked the massacre, as Jane, before the massacre, had ran off with the white settlers to join the Cherokee of Corn blossom, Jacob Troxell, and Peter. You see, Peter Troxell had 2 wives, Jane Stevenson and Standing Fern. And this struck in the craw of all the white people who hated the Cherokee of south central Kentucky. Again, the real reason of the massacre was just because the Cherokee were there, and the children had to die, this feeling of a white woman, one of the settlers own, married to a Cherokee who attacked them all the time, was just fuel for that fired the flame of hatred. Jane Stevenson, weather forcibly or willingly, after the massacre, will take the children of her husband War Chief Peter Troxell and Standing Fern into survival through the marriage of the son of the one who killed her husband.

Seeing intermarriage with their own, the Indian hating populace feels secure Doubleheads grandchildren assimilation into white society will bring no threat to the area anymore. The Indian haters did not know that Jacob, William, and some other Cherokee will escape their reach and later to return to the area in_ generations to come with a history, to tell. Many of the earlier settlers believed now that Cherokee, their culture, history, and idea, were now being devastated and over time would be completely destroyed. They did not count on Corn blossoms legacy to ever return with what happened to a great people: the Thunderbolts.

On a very cold day, in early spring of 1994 during the Moon bow Event of Cumberland Falls, with many attending, Danny Troxell, direct descendent of Corn blossom and her last born son William Troxell, broke the silence of the falls for the 1st time by making the ist Cherokee oration a Ywahoo Falls since the massacre of 1810. For 184 years, since the massacre, no Cherokee descent had spoken at the falls. But on that day a great tragedy chronicle of the Cherokee People was spoken. Today, (1996-186 years after the massacre) in southeast Kentucky and elsewhere, the descendants of
Corn blossom and other Cherokee descendants are numerous.

Willian Troxell last born of Corm blossom and Jacob Troxell, my direct descent line who was known as “Little Willie” or sometimes called “Little Loud Wolf’, was 10 years old at the time of the great massacre. William was in the party with Cornblossom (his mother), Peter Troxell (his brother), and Redbird (his very close relative).

Jacob Troxell did not ever recover from the massacre, he had been shot and scalped, his family and friends destroyed. His mind and thinking was gone, to never be recovered. So in memory, and the way it was, Jacob DID die at the massacre, never leaving his wife Cornblossom, his son and daughter-in-law, and the 100 Cherokee children and others. Even though his body was in Alabama, his mind was always at the Cherokee massacre, the people, and the lands he loved, THE CHEROKEE PEOPLE. Maybe someday a memorial will be erected to remember them all.

Danny Troxell
Direct Descendent of Corm blossom (daughter of Doublehead) the Mighty Cumberland Plateau Thunderbolt Cherokees and the Southern Kentucky Cumberland River Shawnee
This is a truce story of my family!

From : Ywahoo Falls


“Know Who’s Land You Are On”

Do you know anything about the people who were the original people of your state where you live? Do you know what happened to them? Do you know where they are now? Have you visited any local reservation? Because they are still here and this land is still theirs. We should know their history and the role our government played in it.

California History: The Hidden Genocide

The Shasta Nation, which Norma Jean belongs to, made a treaty in 1851 with the United States government. This treaty was never ratified by Congress, but the Indian people were led to believe it was an honorable agreement. To celebrate the signing of this treaty, the Indian people were invited to a feast at Fort Jones. The meat was laced with strychnine and 4,000 Indian people died there.

First gold, then land drew the world to California. Some of the best, but many of the worst, swept into this fruitful country with their picks and their plows destroying the welcoming Indian people in their path. From 1850-1890, disease and murder reduced the indigenous people by 94%. Local bands of citizen “volunteers- ” roamed the countryside killing Indian families, winning praise from their fellow citizens and payment from the state.

For $3 and a little paperwork, “citizens” could indenture any Indian for 25 years. “Citizens” received from 50 cents to $5 per Indian scalp. The state of California paid out over a million dollars for scalps.

From the early 1900’s, Indian children were removed from their families and sent to boarding schools to be stripped of their culture and prepared for menial jobs at the bottom of the economic ladder. All these are acts of genocide, as defined by international law.

The re-emergence of Indian self-respect in the last 25 years has led to direct confrontations with the U.S. government and corporations over control of Indian lands and peoples. This has manifested itself in California through such acts as:

The Alcatraz occupation by Indians of All Tribes, 1969; the ongoing Pitt River reservation struggle; the Klamath fishing wars; the founding of D-Q University; the Toyon Wintu sawmill struggle; and the ongoing struggle for federal recognition by many California tribes.

The vast ancestral lands are now reduced to small dots on the map. The treaties have never been honored and recently the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in the Gasket-Orleans (G-O) Road decision that Indian people have no right to practice and exercise their indigenous religion.

The courts have been and continue to be a violent weapon against Indian people, “legally” authorizing theft of land and resources; imprisoning leaders of Indian struggle, and inflicting upon Indian people the highest arrest rate, conviction rate, severity of sentence and average length of time served of any group of people.


California Genocide of Native Peoples     The “extermination” of native people as worded in official documents and public news papers. There is no question. It is plainly written.

History of Survival

For me as a teenager, the story about Ishi was the saddest story I have ever read. I cannot imagine being the last of my people, alone, everyone looking at me as if I was from another planet, in my own land. I never forget this story and I always shared it with my class. Let Ishi never be forgotten.



I had been to Clear Lake in Northern California many times and had never heard this story. Again, these events get swept away and forgotten – but let us not forget.

Clear Lake Massacre


Photo credit:

An island in Clear Lake, California, was renamed Bloody Island after the massacre of the indigenous Pomo tribe there in 1850. Thanks to severe mistreatment, including rape and murder, at the hands of white men who had taken various members of the tribe as slaves, the Pomo people attacked, killing two men and escaping to a nearby lake.

Captain Nathaniel Lyon, a soldier in the US Cavalry, and other men set off into the woods to find the offending tribe. The men discovered the hidden camp a short time later.

After failing to successfully reach the tribe, which had taken refuge on an island in the lake, the soldiers built a handful of boats, loaded them with cannons, and attacked. From 100 to 400 Native Americans were killed.

A local newspaper originally declared the massacre to be tantamount to state-sponsored genocide but reversed course four days later, calling it a “greatly exaggerated” story.

California Massacres

Read it and weep, a list of massacres on Wikipedia. There are more California massacres listed here. And these are only the recorded ones. We literally live on mass graves. We cannot begin to heal what we do not even know about, so the government keeps everyone ignorant. Research and Learn about your state.

List of massacres

This is a listing of some of the events reported then or referred to now as “Indian massacre”. This list only contains incidents that occurred in Canada or the United States or territory presently part of the United States.  Wikipedia List of Indian Massacres

Pre-Columbian era

Year Date Name Description Reported native casualties
1325 Crow Creek massacre 486 known dead were discovered at an archaeological site near Chamberlain, South Dakota. The victims and perpetrators were unknown groups of Native Americans. 486 [7]


Year Date Name Description Reported casualties Claimants
1539 Napituca Massacre After defeating resisting Timucuan warriors, Hernando de Soto had 200 executed, in the first large-scale massacre by Europeans on what became American soil. 200 [8]
1540 October 18 Mabila Massacre The Choctaw retaliated against Hernando de Soto‘s expedition,[9] killing 200 soldiers, as well as many of their horses and pigs, for their having burned down Mabila compound and killed c. 2,500 warriors who had hidden in houses of a fake village. 2500 [8][10][11]
1541–42 Tiguex Massacres After the invading Spaniards seized the houses, food and clothing of the Tiguex, and raped their women, the Tiguex resisted. The Spanish attacked them, burning at the stake 50 people who had surrendered. Francisco Vásquez de Coronado‘s men laid siege to the Moho Pueblo, and after a months-long siege, they killed 200 fleeing warriors. 250 [12][13]
1599 January 22–24 Acoma Massacre Juan de Oñate led a punitive expedition against the natives in a three-day battle at the Acoma Pueblo, killing approximately 800. King Philip III later punished Oñate for his excesses. 800 [14][15]
1601 Sandia Mountains Spanish troops destroyed 3 Indian villages in the Sandia Mountains, New Mexico. According to Spanish sources, 900 Tompiro Indians were killed. 900 [16]
1610 August 9 Paspahegh Massacre Lord De la Warr sent 70 men to attack the Paspahegh Indians. They destroyed their main village near Jamestown, killing between 16 and 65 people. The wife and children of the village chief were captured and shortly afterwards put to death . 16-65 [17][18]
1622 March 22 Jamestown Massacre Powhatan (Pamunkey) killed 347 English settlers throughout the Virginia colony, almost one-third of the English population of the Jamestown colony, in an effort to push the English out of Virginia. 347 (English) [19]
1623 Wessagusset affair Several Massachusett chiefs were lured to Wessagusset under peaceful pretenses and put to death. Other Indians present in the village were also killed. [20][21]
1623 May 12 Pamunkey Peace Talks The English poisoned the wine at a “peace conference” with Powhatan leaders, killing about 200; they physically attacked and killed another 50. 250 [11]
1637 April 23 Wethersfield Attack During the Pequot War, Wongunk chief Sequin attacked the Puritan town Wethersfield, Connecticut with Pequot help. About 30 foreign squaters were killed, including women and children. 30 (Settlers) [22]
1637 May 26 Mystic Massacre In the Pequot War, English colonists commanded by John Mason, with Mohegan and Narragansett allies, launched a night attack on a large Pequot village on the Mystic River in present-day Connecticut, where they burned the inhabitants in their homes and killed all survivors, for total fatalities of about 600–700. 600-700 [23]
1640 July Staten Island 80 Dutch soldiers under Cornelis van Tienhoven attacked a village of Raritans on Staten Island over stolen pigs. Van Tienhoven intended only to demand payment, but his men wanted to massacre the Indians and he eventually consented. [24]
1643 February 25 Pavonia Massacre In 1643 the Mohawk attacked a band of Wappinger and Tappan, who fled to New Amsterdam seeking the protection of New Netherland governor, William Kieft. Kieft dispersed them to Pavonia[25] and Corlears Hook. They were later attacked, 129 being killed. This prompted the beginning of Kieft’s War, driven by mercenary John Underhill. 129 [26][27][28]
1643 August Hutchinson Massacre As part of Kieft’s War in New Netherland, near the Split Rock (now northeastern Bronx in New York City), local Lenape (or Siwanoy) killed squatter Anne Hutchinson, six of her children, a son-in-law, and as many as seven others (servants). Susanna, one of Hutchinson’s daughters, was taken captive and lived with the natives for several years. 15 (Settlers) [29]
1644 Massapequa Massacre John Underhill’s men killed more than 100 Indians near present-day Massapequa. 100+ [30][31]
1644 March Pound Ridge Massacre As part of Kieft’s War in New Netherland, at present day Pound Ridge, New York, John Underhill, hired by the Dutch, attacked and burned a sleeping village of Lenape, killing about 500 Indians. 500 [11][32]
1655 September 11–15 Peach Tree War In retaliation for Director-General of New Netherland Peter Stuyvesant‘s attacks to their trading partners and allies at New Sweden, united bands of natives retaliated Pavonia, Staten Island, Colen Donck and other areas of New Netherland. [33]
1675 July Susquehannock Massacre After a raid by Doeg Indians on a plantation in Virginia, a party of militiamen crossed the Potomac into Maryland and killed 14 Susquehannocks they found sleeping in their cabins. 14 [34]
1675 July Swansea Massacre Wampanoag warriors attack the town of Swansea, Massachusetts, killing 7 squatters. This attack marked the beginning of King Philip’s War. 7 (Settlers) [35]
1675 September 18 Bloody Brook Massacre During King Philip’s War, Indian warriors killed 60 soldiers of Deerfield, Massachusetts. 60 (interlopers) [36]
1675 December 19 Great Swamp Massacre Colonial militia attacked a Narragansett fort near South Kingstown, Rhode Island. At least 40 warriors were killed and 300 women, children and elder men burnt in the village. 340 [37]
1676 March 26 Nine Men’s Misery During King Philip’s War, warriors retaliated against nine captive soldiers with ritual torture and death. 9 [38][39]
1676 May Massacre at Occoneechee Island Nathaniel Bacon turned on his Occaneechi allies and his men destroyed three forts within their village on Occoneechee Island, on the Roanoke River near present-day Clarksville, Virginia. Bacon’s troops murdered one hundred men, women and children. 100+ [40]
1676 May 10 Turner Falls Massacre Captain William Turner and 150 militia volunteers attacked a fishing Indian camp at present-day Turners Falls, Massachusetts. At least 100 women and children were murdered in the attack. 100 [41]
1676 July 2 Rhode Island Militia volunteers under Major Talcott attacked a band of Narragansetts on Rhode Island, murdering 34 men and 92 women and children. 126 [42]
1680 August 10 Pueblo Revolt Pueblo warriors killed 380 Spanish invaders, and drove other Spaniards from New Mexico. 380 (Spaniards) [43]
1689 August 5 Lachine massacre 1,500 Mohawk warriors retaliated at the small settlement of Lachine, New France and killed more than 90 of the village’s 375 French residents, in response to widespread French attacks on Mohawk villages in present-day New York. 90 (French) [44]
1689 Zia Pueblo Governor Jironza de Cruzate destroyed the pueblo of Zia, New Mexico. 600 Indians were murdered and 70 survivors enslaved. 600 [45]
1690 February 8 Schenectady Massacre As part of the Beaver Wars, French and Algonquins destroyed Schenectady, New York, killing 60 Dutch and English colonizers, including ten women and at least twelve children. 60 (Dutch and English) [46]
1692 January 24 Candlemas Massacre During King William’s War, 200-300 Abenaki and Canadiens killed 75, took 100 prisoner and burned the encroaching town of York, Maine district of the Province of Massachusetts Bay 75 (Non-Indians) [47]
1704 Apalachee Massacre Former Carolina Governor James Moore launched a series of brutal attacks on the Apalachee villages of Northern Florida. They murdered 1000 Apalachees and enslaved at least 2000 survivors. 1000 [48]
1704 February 29 Deerfield Massacre During Queen Anne’s War, a force composed of Abenaki, Kanienkehaka, Wyandot and Pocumtuck, accompanied by a small contingent of French-Canadian militia, sacked the town of Deerfield, Massachusetts, killing 56 civilians and taking more than 100 as captives. 56 (Non-Indians) [49]
1711 September 22 Massacre at Bath The Southern Tuscarora, Pamplico, Cothechneys, Cores, Mattamuskeets and Matchepungoes attacked squatters at several locations in and around the city of Bath, North Carolina. Hundreds of settlers were killed, and many more were driven off. Hundreds (settlers) [50]
1712 Massacre at Fort Narhantes The North Carolina militia and their Indian allies attacked the Southern Tuscarora at Fort Narhantes on the banks of the Neuse River. More than 300 Tuscarora were murdered, and one hundred were sold into slavery. 300 [50]
1712 May Fox Indian Massacre French troops with some Indian allies killed around 1,000 Fox Indians men, women and children in a five-day massacre near the head of the Detroit River. 1000 [51]
1713 March 20–23 Fort Neoheroka Militia volunteers and Indian allies under Colonel James Moore attacked Ft. Neoheroka, the main stronghold of the Tuscarora Indians. 200 Tuscaroras were burned to death in the village and 900–1000 others were subsequently killed or captured. 200-1200 [52][53]
1715 April 15 Pocotaligo Massacre Yamassee Indians killed 4 British imperialists and representatives of Carolina at Pocotaligo, near present-day Yemassee, South Carolina. 90 other traders were killed in the following weeks. 94 (traders) [54]
1715 April Massacre at St Bartholemew’s Parish At the onset of the Yamasee War, Yamasee Indians defending the area now known as St Bartolehew’s Parish in South Carolina, killing over 100 squatters. Subsequent attacks around Charles Town killed many more, and in total, about 7% of the colony’s interlopers perished in the conflict. 100+ [55]
1715 May Barker Ambush During the Yamasee War, a band Catawba and Cherokee defensive forces killed the entirety of Captain Barker’s cavalry militia while they slept. About 50 [55]
1715 May Schenkingh Plantation A band of Catawba and Cherokee warriors attacked Benjamin Schenkingh’s plantation where about 20 squatters had taken refuge. All were killed. 20 [55]
1724 August 24 Norridgewock Massacre Captains Jeremiah Moulton and Johnson Harmon led 200 rangers to the Abenaki village of Norridgewock, Maine to kill Father Sebastian Rale and destroy the Indian settlement. The rangers massacred 80 Abenakis (including two dozen women and children). 80 [56]
1729 November 29 Natchez Massacre Natchez Indians attacked French incursions near present-day Natchez, Mississippi, killing more than 200 French colonists. 200 (French) [57]
1730 Massacre of Chawasha village Governor Perrier ordered 80 black slaves to attack the village of the Chawasha Indians. At least 7 Indians were murdered. 7 [58]
1730 September 9 Massacre at Fox Fort A French army of 1,400 soldiers and some Indian allies massacred about 500 Fox Indians (including 300 women and children) as they tried to flee their besieged camp. 500 [59]
1745 Massacre at Walden Upon hearing of an impending French and Indian attack upon the Ulster county frontiers, British colonists massacred several peaceful Munsee families near Walden, New York. On March 2, 1756, white vigilantes murdered 9 friendly Munsee Indians at Walden. 9+ [60][61]
1747 October Chama River Spanish troops ambushed a group of Utes on the Chama River, murdering 111 Indians and taking 206 as captives. 111 [62]
1755 Jul 8 Draper’s Meadow massacre 5 settlers killed by Shawnee Indians at Draper’s Meadow, Virginia 5 (Settlers) [63]
1757 August 9 Battle of Fort William Henry Following the fall of Fort William Henry during the Seven Years’ War, the French with Indian allies killed between 70 and 180 British and colonial prisoners. 70-180 (British) [64]
1758 March 16 San Saba Mission Massacre A large party of Comanche, Tonkawa and Hasinai Indians attacked the encroachment known as the mission of San Saba, Texas, killing 8 and burning down the mission. 8 (missionaries) [65]
1759 October 4 St. Francis Raid During the Seven Years’ War, in retaliation to a rumored murder of a captured Stockbridge man and detention of Captain Quinten Kennedy of the Rogers’ Rangers, Major Robert Rogers led a party of approximately 150 English regulars, volunteers and Mahican into the village of Odanak, Quebec. They murdered up to 30 Abenaki people, among them women and children, as confirmed via conflicting reports. 30 [66]
1763 May Capture of Fort Sandusky During Pontiac’s War, a group of Wyandots entered the British occupation forces outpost Fort Sandusky under peaceful pretexts. The Wyandots then seized the fort and killed its 15-member garrison along with several British traders. 15+ (British) [67]
1763 September 14 Devil’s Hole Massacre During the Seven Years’ War, Seneca native defenders attacked a British supply train and soldiers just south of Fort Niagara. They killed 21 teamsters from the supply train and 81 soldiers who attempted to rescue the train. 102 (British) [68]
1763 December Killings by the Paxton Boys In response to Pontiac’s Rebellion, frontier Pennsylvania settlers murdered 20 peaceful Susquehannock. 20 [69][70][71]
1764 July 26 Enoch Brown school massacre Four Lenape Indians killed a schoolmaster, 10 pupils and a pregnant woman. Two pupils were scalped but survived. 12 (Non-Indians) [71]
1774 September Spanish Peaks Spanish troops snuk up on a large fortified Comanche village near Spanish Peaks (Raton, New Mexico). They murdered nearly 300 Indians (men, women and children) and took 100 captives. 300 [72]
1774 April 30 Yellow Creek Massacre Daniel Greathouse murdered members of Chief Logan‘s family. [73]
1777 September 26 The Grave Creek Massacre A milita company under Captain William Foreman is attacked and killed by Indian defenders south of Wheeling, West Virginia. 22 [74]
1778 July 3 Battle of Wyoming During the American Revolutionary War, following a battle with rebel defenders of Forty Fort, Iroquois allies of Loyalist forces tracked and killed regrouping enemy forces; they were later falsely accused of using torture to kill those soldiers who surrendered. These claims were denied by Iroquois and British leaders at the time. 340 [75][76][77]
1778 August 31 Stockbridge Massacre An ambush by the British during the American Revolutionary War that left nearly 40 natives dead. 40 [78]
1778 November 11 Cherry Valley Massacre British and Seneca forces attacked the fort and village at Cherry Valley, New York, killing 16 rebel troops and more than 30 settlers. 46 (Settlers) [79]
1780 June 27 Westervelt Massacre Seventeen Dutch settlers killed and two taken captive out of a caravan of 41. The settler caravan was traveling between Low Dutch Station, Kentucky and Harrod’s Town, Kentucky. The victims were all scalped and sold to the British for a bounty. 41 (Dutch) [80]
1781 September 1 Dietz Massacre During the Revolution, Iroquois allied with the British attacked the home of Johannes Dietz, Berne, New York, killing and scalping Dietz, his wife, their daughter-in-law, four children of their son’s family, and a servant girl. 8 (Dutch) [81][82]
1781 September 1 Long Run Massacre Thirty-two settlers killed by 50 Miami people while trying to move to safety, additionally approximately 15 settlers and 17 soldiers were killed attempting to bury the initial victims. 64 (Settlers) [83][84]
1782 March 8 Gnadenhütten massacre During the Revolution, Pennsylvania militiamen massacred nearly 100 non-combatant Christian Lenape, mostly women and children; they killed and scalped all but two young boys. 100 [85][86]
1782 May 10 Corbly Family Massacre During the Revolution, Indians allied with the British attacked the family of John Corbly, a Christian minister in Greene County, Pennsylvania. His wife and three of their children were killed; and two daughters were scalped, but survived. The Reverend Corbly escaped. 4 (Settlers) [87]
1788 Kirk Family Massacre A party of Indians killed 11 members of the Kirk family (1 woman and 10 children) on Nine Mile Creek 12 miles south of present-day Knoxville. 11 (Settlers) [88]
1788 Massacre of the Old chiefs In retaliation to the Kirk Massacre, Old Tassel and 4 other chiefs of the Cherokee peace faction were lured into a trap and axed under a flag of truce in Chilhowee. 5 [89]
1791 January 2 Big Bottom massacre 14 settlers were killed by an Indian war party in Stockport, Morgan County, Ohio. 14 (Settlers)
1791 November 4 Fort Recovery Massacre At present day Fort Recovery, Ohio, an army of 1,500 Americans led by Arthur St. Clair, was ambushed by an army of Miami Indians led by chief Little Turtle. Before retreating, 700 of the 1,500 American soldiers were killed. 700 (Americans) [90]
1805 January Canyon del Muerto Spanish soldiers led by Antonio Narbona massacred 115 Navajo Indians (mostly women, children and old men) in Canyon del Muerto, northeastern Arizona. 115 [91]
1812 August 15 Fort Dearborn Massacre
(Battle of Fort Dearborn)
During the War of 1812, Indians allied with the British killed American soldiers and settlers evacuating Fort Dearborn (site of present-day Chicago, Illinois). In all, 26 soldiers, two officers, two women and 12 children, and 12 trappers and settlers hired as scouts, were killed. 54 (Non-Indians) [92]
1812 September 3 Pigeon Roost Massacre During the War of 1812, twenty four settlers, including fifteen children, were massacred by a war party of Native Americans (mostly Shawnee, but possibly including some Lenape and Potawatomis) in a surprise attack on a small village located in what is today Scott County, Indiana. 24 (Settlers) [93]
1812 September 10 Zimmer Massacre During the War of 1812, four settlers were killed in an attack believed to be by aggrieved Lenape, in Ashland County, Ohio. 4 (Settlers) [94]
1812 September 15 Copus Massacre During the War of 1812, Northwest Indians attacked the Ashland County, Ohio homestead of Rev. James Copus, killing three militiamen and one settler; and wounding two militiamen and a settler’s daughter; settlers killed two Indians. 4 (Settlers) + 2 (Indians) [95]
1813 January 22 River Raisin Massacre During the War of 1812, Indians allied with the British killed between 30 and 60 Kentucky militia after their surrender. 30 – 60 (Americans) [96]
1813 August 18 Dilbone Massacre During the War of 1812, an Indian allegedly killed three settlers (David Garrard and Henry Dilbone and wife) in Miami County, Ohio. Settlers later killed the Indian they suspected of the murders. 3 (Settlers) + 1 (Indian) [97]
1813 August 30 Fort Mims Massacre After a Creek victory at the Battle of Burnt Corn, a band of Creek Red Sticks attacked Fort Mims, Alabama, killing 400-500 settlers, slaves, militiamen and Creek loyalists and taking 250 scalps. This action brought the US into the internal Creek War, at the same time as the War of 1812. 400-500 (Settlers) [98]
1813 September 1 Kimbell-James Massacre Immediately after departing Fort Mims, Red Sticks warriors led by Josiah Francis (Prophet Francis) attacked the Kimbell and James families seeking refuge near Fort Sinquefield. At least 15 were killed, mostly women and children. 15 (Settlers) [99]
1813 November 3 Battle of Tallushatchee 900 Tennessee troops under General John Coffee, and including Davy Crockett, attacked an unsuspecting Creek town. About 186-200 Creek Warriors were killed, and an unknown number of women and children were killed, some burned in their houses. 186-200 [100][101]
1813 November 18 Hillabee Massacre Tennessee troops under General White launched a dawn attacked on an unsuspecting Creek town (the village leaders were engaged in peace negotiations with General Andrew Jackson). About 65 Creek Indians were shot or bayoneted. 65 [102]
1813 November 29 Autossee Massacre
(Battle of Autossee)
Georgia Militia General Floyd attacked a Creek town on Tallapoosa River, in Macon County, Alabama, killing 200 Indians before setting the village afire. 200 [103]
1817 Late September Scott Massacre A supply boat under the command of Lt. Richard W. Scott was attacked by Seminole Indians on the Apalachicola River. 40-50 people on the boat were killed, including twenty sick soldiers and seven wives of soldiers. One woman was taken prisoner, and six survivors made it to Fort Scott. 40-50 (Settlers) [104]
1823 February Skull Creek Massacre After Coco Indians killed two colonists under unclear circumstances, the colonists got together twenty-five men and found a Karankawa people village on Skull Creek. They killed at least nineteen inhabitants of the village before the rest could flee, then stole their possessions and burned their homes to the ground. 19+ [105]
1824 March 22 Fall Creek Massacre Six settlers in Madison County, Indiana killed and robbed eight Seneca. One suspect escaped trial and another was a witness at subsequent trial. Of those charged with murder, one man was hanged 12 January 1825, and two were hanged 2 June 1825. The last defendant was pardoned at the last minute. 8 [106]
1826 Dressing Point Massacre A posse of Anglo-Texan settlers massacred a large community of Karankawa Indians near the mouth of the Colorado River in Matagorda County, Texas. Between 40 and 50 Karankawas were killed. 40-50 [107]


Year Date Name Description Reported casualties Claimants
1832 May 20 Indian Creek Massacre A party of Potawatomi, with a few Sauk allies, killed fifteen men, women and children and kidnapped two young women, who were later ransomed. 15 (Settlers) [108]
1832 May 24 St. Vrain massacre 4 settlers were killed by Ho-Chunk while delivering dispatches during the Black Hawk War near present-day Pearl City, Illinois 4 (Settlers) [109]
1832 June 14 Spafford Farm massacre During Black Hawk War, five men were attacked by a Kickapoo war party near present-day South Wayne, Wisconsin. Four whites and one Indian died. 4 (Whites) + 1 [110]
1832 August 1 Battle of Bad Axe Soldiers under General Henry Atkinson and armed volunteers killed around 150 Indian men, women and children near present-day Victory, Wisconsin. 150 [111]
1833 Exact date unknown Cutthroat Gap Massacre The Osage tribe attacked a Kiowa camp west of the Wichita Mountains in southwest Oklahoma, killing 150 Kiowa Indians. 150 [112]
1835 December 28 Dade Massacre During the Second Seminole War, Seminole killed almost all of a command of 110 American soldiers in Central Florida. All but two of the soldiers were killed; and one survivor died a few months later from his wounds. 110 (American) [113][114]
1836 May 19 Fort Parker Massacre Comanche killed seven European Americans in Limestone County, Texas. The five captured included Cynthia Ann Parker. 7 (Europeans) [115]
1837 Amador Massacre Mexican colonists under Jose Maria Amador captured an entire rancheria of friendly Miwok Indians in Northern California and killed their 200 prisoners in two mass executions. 200 [116]
1837 April 22 Johnson Massacre At least 20 Apaches were killed near Santa Rita del Cobre, New Mexico while trading with a group of American settlers led by John Johnson. The Anglos blasted the Apaches with a canon loaded with musket balls, nails and pieces of glass and finished off the wounded. 20 [117]
1838 October 5 Killough Massacre Indians massacred eighteen members and relatives of the Killough family in Texas. 18 (Settlers) [118]
1838 or 1839 Exact date unknown Webster Massacre The Comanche killed a party of settlers attempting to ford the Bushy Creek near present-day Leander, Texas. All of the Anglo men were killed and Mrs. Webster and her two children were captured. [119]
1840 March 19 Council House Massacre The 12 leaders of a Comanche delegation (65 people including 35 women and children) were shot in San Antonio, Texas, while trying to escape the local jail. 23 others including 5 women and children were killed in or around the city. 88 [120]
1840 August 7 Indian Key Massacre During the Seminole Wars, Spanish-speaking Indians attacked and destroyed an Indian Key settlement, killing 13 inhabitants, including noted horticulturist Dr. Henry Perrine. 13 (Settlers) [121]
1840 October 24 Colorado River Volunteer Rangers under Colonel Moore massacred 140 Comanches (men, women and children) in their village on the Colorado and captured 35 others (mostly small children). 140 [122]
1840 Exact date unknown Clear Lake Massacre A posse led by Mexican Salvador Vallejo massacred 150 Pomo and Wappo Indians on Clear Lake, California. 150 [123]
1846 April 6 Sacramento River massacre Captain Frémont’s men attacked a band of Indians (probably Wintun) on the Sacramento River in California, killing between 120 and 200 Indians. 120-200 [124]
1846 May 12 Klamath Lake massacre Captain Frémont’s men, led by Kit Carson attacked a village of Klamath Indians) on the banks of Klamath Lake, killing at least 14 Klamath people. 14+ [125]
1846 June Sutter Buttes massacre Captain Frémont’s men attacked a rancheria on the banks of the Sacramento River near Sutter Buttes, killing several Patwin people. 14+ [125]
1846 December Pauma massacre 11 Californios were killed by Indians at Escondido, California, leading to the Temecula massacre. 11 [126]
1846 December Temecula massacre 33 to 40 Indians killed in revenge for the Pauma Massacre at Escondido, California. 33-40 [126]
1847 February 3–4 Storming of Pueblo de Taos In response to a New Mexican-instigated uprising in Taos, American troops attacked the heavily fortified Pueblo of Taos with artillery, killing nearly 150, some being Indians. Between 25 and 30 prisoners were shot by firing squads. 175-180 [127]
1847 March Rancheria Tulea massacre White slavers retaliate to a slave escape by massacring five Indians in Rancheria Tulea. 5 [125]
1847 March 29 Kern and Sutter massacres In response to a plea from White settlers to put an end to raids, U.S. Army Captain Edward Kern and rancher John Sutter led 50 men in attacks on three Indian villages. 20 [125]
1847 late June/early July Konkow Maidu slaver massacre Slavers kill 12-20 Konkow Maidu Indians in the process of capturing 30 members of the tribe for the purpose of forced slavery. 12-20 [125]
1847 November 29 Whitman massacre Cayuse and Umatilla warriors killed the missionaries Dr. Marcus Whitman, Mrs. Narcissa Whitman and 12 others at Walla Walla, Washington, triggering the Cayuse War. 14 (Missionaries) [128]
1848 April Brazos River A hunting party of 26 friendly Wichita and Caddo Indians was massacred by Texas Rangers under Captain Samuel Highsmithe, in a valley south of Brazos River. 25 men and boys were killed, and only one child managed to escape. 26 [129]
1849 March 5 Battle Creek massacre In response to some cattle being stolen, Governor Brigham Young sent members of the Mormon militia to “put a final end to their depredations”. They were led to a band, where they attacked them, killing the men and taking the women and children as captives. 4 (more by some accounts) [130]
1850 Feb 8 Battle at Fort Utah Governor Brigham Young issued a partially extermination order of the Timpanogos who lived in Utah Valley. In the north, the Timpanogos were fortified. However, in the south, the Mormon militia told them they were friendly before lining them up to execute them. Dozens of women and children were enslaved and taken to Salt Lake City, Utah, where many died. 1 (militia Soldier) + 102 + “many” in captivity [131]
1850 May 15 Bloody Island Massacre Nathaniel Lyon and his U.S. Army detachment of cavalry killed 60–100 Pomo people on Bo-no-po-ti island near Clear Lake, (Lake Co., California); they believed the Pomo had killed two Clear Lake settlers who had been abusing and murdering Pomo people. (The Island Pomo had no connections to the enslaved Pomo). This incident led to a general outbreak of settler attacks against and mass killing of native people all over Northern California. Site is California Registered Historical Landmark #427 60-100 [132][133][134]
1851 March Oatman Massacre Royce Oatman’s emigrant party of 7 was killed by Mohave or Yavapai Indians. The survivors, Olive and Mary Ann Oatman were enslaved. Olive escaped five years later and spoke extensively about the experience. 7 (Settlers) [135]
1851 Old Shasta Town Miners killed 300 Wintu Indians near Old Shasta, California and burned down their tribal council meeting house. 300 [136]
1852 Hynes Bay Massacre Texas militiamen attacked a village of 50 Karankawas, killing 45 of them. 45 [137]
1852 April 23 Bridge Gulch Massacre 70 American men led by Trinity County sheriff William H. Dixon killed more than 150 Wintu people in the Hayfork Valley of California, in retaliation for the killing of Col. John Anderson. 150 [138]
1852 November Wright Massacre White settlers led by a notorious Indian hunter named Ben Wright massacred 41 Modocs during a “peace parley”. 41 [139]
1853 Howonquet Massacre Californian settlers attacked and burned the Tolowa village of Howonquet, massacring 70 people. 70 [140]
1853 Yontoket Massacre A posse of settlers attacked and burned a Tolowa rancheria at Yontocket, California, killing 450 Tolowa during a prayer ceremony. 450 [141][142]
1853 Achulet Massacre White settlers launched an attack on a Tolowa village near Lake Earl in California, killing between 65 and 150 Indians at dawn. 65-150 [143]
1853 Before December 31 “Ox” incident U.S. forces attacked and killed an unreported number of Indians in the Four Creeks area (Tulare County, California) in what was referred to by officers as “our little difficulty” and “the chastisement they have received”. [144]
1854 January 28 Nasomah Massacre 40 white settlers attacked the sleeping village of the Nasomah Indians at the mouth of the Coquille River in Oregon, killing 15 men and 1 woman. 16 [145]
1854 February 15 Chetco River Massacre Nine white settlers attacked a friendly Indian village on the Chetco River in Oregon, massacring 26 men and a few women. Most of the Indians were shot while trying to escape. Two Chetco who tried to resist with bows and arrows were burned alive in their houses. Shortly before the attack, the Chetco had been induced to give away their weapons as “friendly relations were firmly established”. 36+ [146]
1854 May 15 Asbill Massacre Six white settlers from Missouri attacked previously uncontacted Indians in the Round Valley, massacring approximately 40 of them. 40 [147]
1854 August 19 Grattan Massacre After a detachment of 30 U.S. soldiers in the Nebraska Territory opened fire on an encampment of 4,000 Brulé Sioux, killing Chief Conquering Bear, warriors attacked and killed all the soldiers and their civilian interpreter. 1 Brulé Lakota chief, 30 U.S. soldiers, 1 interpreter [148]
1854 August 20 Ward Massacre Shoshone killed 18 of the 20 members of the Alexander Ward party, attacking them on the Oregon Trail in western Idaho. This event led the U.S. eventually to abandon Fort Boise and Fort Hall, in favor of the use of military escorts for emigrant wagon trains. 18 (Settlers) [149][150][151]
1854 Dec 25 Fort Pueblo Massacre 16 settlers were killed by Utah & Apache
1855 January 22 Klamath River massacres In retaliation for the murder of six settlers and the theft of some cattle, whites commenced a “war of extermination against the Indians” in Humboldt County, California. [152]
1855 September 2 Harney Massacre US troops under Brigadier General William S. Harney killed 86 Sioux, men, women and children at Blue Water Creek, in present-day Nebraska. About 70 women and children were taken prisoner. 86 [153]
1855 October 8 Lupton Massacre A group of settlers and miners launched a night attack on an Indian village near Upper Table Rock, Oregon, killing 23 Indians (mostly elderly men, women and children). 23 [154]
1855 December 23 Little Butte Creek Oregon volunteers launched a dawn attack on a Tututni and Takelma camp on the Rogue River. Between 19 and 26 Indians were killed. 19-26 [155]
1856 June Grande Ronde River Valley Massacre Washington Territorial Volunteers under Colonel Benjamin Shaw attacked a peaceful Cayuse and Walla Walla Indians on the Grande Ronde River in Oregon. 60 Indians, mostly women, old men and children were killed. 60 [156]
1856 March Shingletown In reprisal for Indian stock theft, white settlers massacred at least 20 Yana men, women and children near Shingletown, California. 20 [157]
1856 March 26 Cascades Massacre Yakama, Klickitat and Cascades warriors attacked white soldiers and settlers at the Cascades of the Columbia River for controlling portage of the river and denying them their source of nutrition. Nine Cascades Indians who surrendered without a fight, including Chenoweth, Chief of the Hood River Band, were improperly charged and executed. 17 [158]
1857 Mar 8–12 Spirit Lake Massacre Thirty-five to 40 settlers were killed and 4 taken captive by Santee Sioux in the last Indian attack on settlers in Iowa. 35-40 [159]
1856-1859 Round Valley Settler Massacres White settlers killed over a thousand Yuki Indians in Round Valley over the course of three years in an uncountable number of separate terrorist attacks. 1000+ [160][161]
1858 July 29 McLoughlin Canyon Ambush Approximately 200 Okanogan and Chelan Indians ambushed 167 miners heading up the Cariboo Trail to the Fraser River gold fields of BC, killing 4. An unknown number of Indians were killed in the 6 hour skirmish in this narrow canyon near Tonasket WA. 4 (Miners) [162][163]
1859-1860 Jarboe’s War White settlers calling themselves the “Eel River Rangers”, led by Walter Jarboe, kill at least 283 Indian men and countless women and children in 23 engagements over the course of six months. They are reimbursed by the U.S. government for their campaign. 283+ [160]
1859 September Pit River White settlers massacred 70 Achomawi Indians (10 men and 60 women and children) in their village on Pit River in California. 70 [164]
1859 Chico Creek White settlers attacked a Maidu camp near Chico Creek in California, killing indiscriminately 40 Indians. 40 [165]
1860 Exact date unknown Massacre at Bloody Rock A group of 65 Yuki Indians were surrounded and massacred by white settlers at Bloody Rock, in Mendocino County, California. 65 [166]
1860 February 26 Indian Island Massacre In three nearly simultaneous assaults on the Wiyot, at Indian Island, Eureka, Rio Dell, and near Hydesville, California white settlers killed between 200 and 250 Wiyot in Humboldt County, California. Victims were mostly women, children and elders, as reported by Bret Harte at Arcata newspaper. Other villages massacred within two days. The main site is National Register of Historic Places in the United States #66000208. 200-250 [167][168][169][170]
1860 December 18 Pease River Massacre Texas Rangers under Captain Sul Ross attacked a Comanche village in Foard County, Texas, killing indiscriminately a considerable number of Indians. [171]
1860 September 8 Otter Massacre Near Sinker Creek Idaho, 11 persons of the last wagon train of the year were killed by Indians and several others were subsequently killed. Some that escaped the initial massacre starved to death 11+ (Settlers) [172]
1861 Horse Canyon Massacre White settlers and Indian allies attacked a Wailaki village in Horse Canyon (Round Valley, California), killing up to 240 Wailakis. 240 [173]
1861 Cookes Canyon Massacres Apaches massacred hundreds of Americans and Mexicans in and around Cookes Canyon, New Mexico over the course of several months. Hundreds [174]
1861 Sep 2 Gallinas Massacre Four Confederate soldiers were killed by Chiricahua Apache warriors. 4 (Soldiers) [175]
1861 September 21 Fort Fauntleroy Massacre Soldiers massacred between 12 and 20 Navajos at Fort Fauntleroy, following a dispute over a horse race. 12-20 [176]
1862 Upper Station Massacre California settlers killed at least 20 Wailakis in Round Valley, California. 20 [177]
1862 Big Antelope Creek Massacre California settlers led by notorious Indian hunter Hi Good launched a dawn attack on a Yana village, massacring about 25 Indians. 25 [178]
1862 August Kowonk Massacre A posse of 25 California settlers killed 45 Konkow Indians on their reservation in Round Valley, California. 45 [179]
1862 August–September Dakota War of 1862 As part of the U.S.-Dakota War, the Sioux killed as many as 800 white settlers and soldiers throughout Minnesota. Some 40,000 white settlers fled their homes on the frontier.[180] 800 (Settlers/Soldiers) [181]
1862 October Massacre at Gallinas Springs Soldiers under Capt. James Graydon’s shot an aged Mescalero leader who was approaching with his hand up as a sign of peace. 11 other Mescaleros were also killed, including a woman. 12 [182]
1862 October 24 Tonkawa Massacre During the U.S. Civil War, a detachment of irregular Union Indians, mainly Kickapoo, Lenape and Shawnee, accompanied by Caddo allies, attempted to destroy the Tonkawa tribe in Indian Territory. They killed 240 of 390 Tonkawa, leaving only 150 survivors. 240 [183]
1863 January 29 Bear River Massacre Col. Patrick Connor led a United States Army regiment killing 280 Shoshone men, women and children near Preston, Idaho. 280 [184][185]
1863 April 19 Keyesville Massacre American militia and members of the California cavalry killed 35 Tübatulabal men in Kern County, California. 35 [186]
1863-1865 Mowry massacres 16 settlers were killed in a series of Indian raids at Mowry, Arizona Territory 16 [187]
1864 Cottonwood 20 Yanas of both sexes were killed by white settlers in the town of Cottonwood, California. 20 [188]
1864 Massacre at Bloody Tanks A group of white settlers led by King S. Woolsey killed 19 Apaches at a “peace parley”. 19 [189][190]
1864 Oak Run Massacre California settlers massacred 300 Yana Indians who had gathered near the head of Oak Run, California for a spiritual ceremony. 300 [188]
1864 Skull Valley Massacre A group of Yavapai families was lured into a trap and massacred by soldiers under Lt. Monteith in a valley west of Prescott, Arizona (Arizona). The place was named Skull Valley after the heads of the dead Indians left unburied. [191][192]
1864 November 29 Sand Creek Massacre Members of the Colorado Militia attacked a peaceful village of Cheyenne, killing at least 160 men, women and children at Sand Creek in Kiowa County. 160+ [193][194]
1865 March 14 Mud Lake Massacre US troops under Captain Wells attacked a Paiute camp near Winnemucca Lake, killing 32 Indians. One soldier was slightly wounded during the attack. 32 [195]
1865 July 18 The Squaw Fight/The Grass Valley Massacre While searching for Antonga Black Hawk, the Mormon militia came upon a band of Ute Indians. Thinking they were part of Black’s Hawks band, they attacked them. They killed 10 men and took the women and children captive. After the women and children tried to escape, the militia shot them too. 10 men + unknown women and children [196]
1865 Owens Lake Massacre White vigilantes attacked a Paiute camp on Owens Lake in California, killing about 40 men, women and children. 40 [197]
1865 Three Knolls Massacre White settlers massacred a Yana community at Three Knolls on the Mill Creek, California. [198][199]
1865 September Bloody Point Massacre A wagon train of 65 settlers was massacred by Modoc Indians near Lake Tule in Oregon. One man survived and alerted the Oregon militia who buried the bodies. 65 (Settlers) [200]
1866 April 21 Circleville Massacre Mormon militiamen killed 16 Paiute men and women at Circleville, Utah. 6 men were shot, allegedly while trying to escape. The others (3 men and 7 women) had their throats cut. 4 small children were spared. 16 [201]
1867 Aquarius Mountains Yavapai County Rangers killed 23 Indians (men, women and children) in the southern Aquarius Mountains, Arizona. 23 [202]
1867 July 2 Kidder Massacre Cheyenne and Sioux ambushed and killed a 2nd US Cavalry detachment of eleven men and their Indian guide near Beaver Creek in Sherman County, Kansas. General Custer was an after-the-fact witness at the scene. 11 (Soldiers) [203][204][205]
1868 Campo Seco A posse of white settlers massacred 33 Yahis in a cave north of Mill Creek, California. 33 [206][207]
1868 September 24 Massacre at La Paz A group of teamsters attacked a sleeping Yavapai camp in the outskirts of La Paz, Arizona, killing 15 Indians. 15 [208]
1868 November 27 Washita Massacre
(Battle of Washita River)
During the American Indian Wars, Lt. Col. G.A.Custer‘s 7th U.S. Cavalry attacked a village of sleeping Cheyenne led by Black Kettle. Custer reported 103 – later revised to 140 – warriors, “some” women and “few” children killed, and 53 women and children taken hostage. Other casualty estimates by cavalry members, scouts and Indians vary widely, with the number of men killed ranging as low as 11 and the numbers of women and children ranging as high as 75. Before returning to their base, the cavalry killed several hundred Indian ponies and burned the village. 140 [209][210][211][212][213][214][215][216][217][218][219]
1870 January 23 Marias Massacre US troops killed 173 Piegan, mainly women, children and the elderly after being led to the wrong camp by a soldier who wanted to protect his Indian wife’s family. 173 [220]
1871 Kingsley Cave Massacre 4 settlers killed 30 Yahi Indians in Tehama County, California about two miles from Wild Horse Corral in the Ishi Wilderness. It is estimated that this massacre left only 15 members of the Yahi tribe alive 30 [221]
1871 April 30 Camp Grant Massacre Led by the ex-Mayor of Tucson, William Oury, eight Americans, 48 Mexicans and more than 100 allied Pima attacked Apache men, women and children at Camp Grant, Arizona Territory killing 144, with 1 survivor at scene and 29 children sold to slavery. All but eight of the dead were Apache women or children. 144 [222][223]
1871 November 5 Wickenburg massacre Indians attacked an Arizona stagecoach, killing the driver and his five passengers, leaving two wounded survivors. 6 (Settlers) [224][225]
1872 Between August and October Jordan Massacre 3 settlers were killed and 1 woman abducted by Indians at the Middle Fork of Walnut Creek, Kansas 3 (Settlers) [226][227]
1872 December 28 Skeleton Cave Massacre U.S. troops and Indian scouts killed 76 Yavapai Indians men, women and children in a remote cave in Arizona’s Salt River Canyon. 76 [228]
1873 June 1 Cypress Hills Massacre Following a dispute over stolen horses, American wolfers killed approximately 20 Nakoda in Saskatchewan. 20 [229]
1875 April Sappa Creek Massacre Soldiers under Lt Austin Henly trapped a group of 27 Cheyenne, (19 men, 8 women and children) on the Sappa Creek, in Kansas and killed them all. 27 [230]
1877 August 8 Battle of the Big Hole US troops under Colonel John Gibbon attacked a Nez Perce village at Big Hole, in Montana Territory. They killed 89 men, women and children before being repulsed by the Indians. 89 [155]
1879 January 9–21 Fort Robinson Massacre Northern Cheyenne under Dull Knife attempted to escape from confinement in Fort Robinson, Nebraska; U.S. Army forces hunted them down, killing 77 of them. The remains of those killed were repatriated in 1994. 77 [231][232]
1879 September 30 Meeker Massacre In the beginning of the Ute War, the Ute killed the US Indian Agent Nathan Meeker and 10 others. They also attacked a military unit, killing 13 and wounding 43. 24 (Soldiers) [233][234]
1880 April 28 Alma Massacre The Apache chief Victorio led warriors in an attack on settlers at Alma, New Mexico. On December 19, 1885, the Apache killed an officer and four enlisted men of the 8th Cavalry Regiment near Alma. 5 (Soldiers) [235]
1889 November 2 Kelvin Grade Massacre The Apache Kid (Haskay-bay-nay-ntayl) and his gang escaped police custody, killing two sheriffs and wounding one settler near present-day Globe, Arizona. 2 (Sheriffs) [236]
1890 December 10 Buffalo Gap Massacre Several wagonloads of Sioux were killed by South Dakota Home Guard militiamen near French Creek, South Dakota, while visiting a white friend in Buffalo Gap. [237]
1890 December Stronghold South Dakota Home Guard militiamen ambushed and massacred 75 Sioux at the Stronghold, in the northern portion of Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. 75 [237]
1890 December 29 Wounded Knee Massacre Members of the U.S. 7th Cavalry attacked and killed between 130 and 250 Sioux men, women and children at Wounded Knee, South Dakota. 130-250 [238][239]
1911 January 19 Last Massacre A group of Shoshone killed four ranchers in Washoe County, Nevada. On 26 February 1911, an American posse killed eight of the Shoshone suspects and captured four children from the band. 5 (4 ranchers & 1 policeman) + 8 (Indians) [240][241][242]



The Massacre at Wounded Knee

Wounded Knee

Russell Means at Wounded Knee

I have researched about the massacre and I wanted to create an interactive learning site. In learning more, I realized even more than I already did that there is a direct link between what happened in the past to what is happening right now. There has been a non-stop battle for the natural resources of North and South Dakota.

Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868)

This is an excerpt from the Treaty of Fort Laramie(1868)

This article of the treaty gives the guidelines the Sioux had to live by, and how they had to treat the Americans. If you skim over the rest of the treaty, you realize that there are no guidelines on how the Americans had to treat the Native Americans.

In consideration of the advantages and benefits conferred by this treaty and the many pledges of friendship by the United States, the tribes who are parties to this agreement hereby stipulate that they will relinquish all right to occupy permanently the territory outside their reservations as herein defined, but yet reserve the right to hunt on any lands north of North Platte, and on the Republican Fork of the Smoky Hill river, so long as the buffalo may range thereon in such numbers as to justify the chase. And they, the said Indians, further expressly agree:

1st. That they will withdraw all opposition to the construction of the railroads now being built on the plains.

2d. That they will permit the peaceful construction of any railroad not passing over their reservation as herein defined.

3d. That they will not attack any persons at home, or travelling, nor molest or disturb any wagon trains, coaches, mules, or cattle belonging to the people of the United States, or to persons friendly therewith.

4th. They will never capture, or carry off from the settlements, white women or children.

5th. They will never kill or scalp white men, nor attempt to do them harm.

6th. They withdraw all pretence of opposition to the construction of the railroad now being built along the Platte river and westward to the Pacific ocean, and they will not in future object to the construction of railroads, wagon roads, mail stations, or other works of utility or necessity, which may be ordered or permitted by the laws of the United States. But should such roads or other works be constructed on the lands of their reservation, the government will pay the tribe whatever amount of damage may be assessed by three disinterested commissioners to be appointed by the President for that purpose, one of the said commissioners to be a chief or headman of the tribe.

7th. They agree to withdraw all opposition to the military posts or roads now established south of the North Platte river, or that may be established, not in violation of treaties heretofore made or hereafter to be made with any of the Indian tribes.


To read the full treaty go to this link

Buffalo and Gold

The buffalo herds were decimated with the expressed purpose of starving the people out. Next, the fight for water rights began as the gold miners claimed all of the land around the creeks. The type of gold found in loose rock that washed down the creeks was called placer gold. The gold miners wanted to find where it washed down from. I learned about how Hearst established his riches with the Homestake Gold Mine, the largest gold mine in the U.S. . General Custer protected miners on their way to this area. Wounded Knee was retaliation for Custer’s demise at the Battle of Little Big Horn. Members of the same 7th Calvary that had been at the Battle of Little Big Horn were also at Wounded Knee with the Hollister canons that were used to kill the women and children. Yet the written accounts refer to a question about how such a bad thing could happen! In researching the events and the participants it is plain that this was pure hateful vengeance and greed.

Depravity and Violence and Trying to Survive

In reading the first hand witness accounts, the depravity and violence was not about fear. The actions of the soldiers were totally unjustified. I read how the group under Black Elk (Big Foot) were searched for guns before they were escorted and made to camp at Wounded Knee. The soldiers knew that they had a large group of predominately unarmed women, children, and elderly. Black Elk was sick with pneumonia. They were carrying a white flag of truce. The camp was totally surrounded by troops. This event is not even the worse, but it was a pivotal moment as all of the great chiefs were assassinated one by one and the sheer barbarity of Wounded Knee made the Lakota retreat into hiding in order to save whatever they could. With this singular event with women, children, a sick chief, all under a flag of truce the soldiers tried to kill every single person there.

Leaking Oil Pipes

Has anything changed? The unjust treatment and abuse continues still with the government trying now to just take the land for private corporations. In my readings it became very clear to me that the issue of pipelines leaking is really a non-issue. Because if the past is any lesson, the fact the the water gets poisoned is just another way to remove the people off the land.

Below are a few references:

Killing the Buffalo

Gold Mining in the Black Hills

The Battle of Little Big Horn

The Battle of Little Big Horn Historic Park


My interactive site is located: Seaside Dreams